These systems have a bottom resist that is not photosensitive but soluble in alkali. The polymers must be composed in such a way that the lacquer coat withstands a coating with a photoresist with the solvent PMA (PGMEA) without any problems. Otherwise there would be a mixing of both resist layers.
PPA layers can also be structured by laser ablation. Substrates coated with AR-P 8100 were structured with pulsed laser light at different wavelengths at the IOM Leipzig (Dr. Klaus Zimmer). In this process, architectures with very little edge roughness could be generated. In the absorption range of PPA, at 248nm, complete ablation was achieved without damaging the silicon substrate.
The resists Atlas 46 S = AR-N 4600-10 and Atlas 46 R = AR-N 4650-10 are photoresists with negative effect and high layer thickness with extremely stable resist structures. In addition, AR-N 4650-10 is removable easily and thus very well suited for photolithographic and electro-plating applications. The characteristics of AR-N 4600-10 are comparable to those of SU-8.
For a surprisingly high number of applications, it is important to disable the transparency of the substrates completely, while still having the option to generate structures.
The resists most widely used by far are the positive photo resists, followed by negative photo resists. However, there are other special resists as well.
Image reversal resists are positive resists with an additional amine. Depending on the manufacturing process, positive or negative images can be generated.
Spray coating is often used for the coating of complex topologies. There are various manufacturers of spray coating equipment, probably the best known are EV Group and Süss Microtec. Both producers use different strategies and devices for spraying, and therefore ready-to-use spray resists must be adjusted for the particular equipment.
The Resist Wiki article “Positive two-layer lift-off systems” describes the principle of these two-layer systems. During the application of lift-off structures, temperatures above 150 °C occur frequently, for example during sputtering. If the usual photo resists are used as top layer, the lift-off structure melts and thus becomes useless for the process.
Almost all photo resists contain PMA (PGMEA) as a solvent. This solvent is therefore the most common thinner and offered by us as AR 300-12 angeboten. The PMA is often used for the removal of edge beads.
Adhesive agents serve to improve adhesion, e.g. the adhesion promoter AR 300-80, which is applied by spin coating as thin layer of approximately 15 nm immediately before the resist coating. It is also possible to evaporate HMDS on the substrate, in this process, the monomolecular coat on the wafer surface improves adhesion, because it becomes hydrophobic and better attaches to the resist.
Lift-off structures are needed for many technologies. There are one-layer and two-layer processes. For one-layer, only one resist is used. Typical examples are negative resists, see Resist-Wiki “Generation of undercut structures with negative resists”. However, there are also positive resists (AR-P 5300) for the lift-off. There is only a slight difference, though in most cases, which, however, is sufficient for many procedures.