The coating with Electra 92 on highly electrically insulating polymers or also on glass allowed a high-quality imaging of nanostructures in SEM.
The specific conductivity of thin films can be determined with various methods, e.g. by non-contact eddy current mapping or also after a direct contact using the four-point probe method (four-peak measurement).
Semi-precious stones like sapphire or garnet increasingly gain in importance as substrates for semiconductor industry. Even though these materials have insulating properties, a patterning with electron beam lithography is nevertheless possible with the help of Electra.