Evaluation of various developers for e-beam exposed CSAR 62 layers (100 kV)

To evaluate the suitability of various developers for CSAR 62, Dr. Lothar Hahn (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Microstructure Technology) kindly provided various substrates which had previously been exposed to 100 kV e-beam irradiation (dose variations).

Interference lithography

Interference lithography is a less frequently used method for patterning. The basic principle is the same as in interferometry or also in holography.


Correct dilution of resists (see “Dilution of resists”) Resists are mainly composed of solvents. The majority of photoresists and the negative-tone e-beam resists utilize PGMEA (PMA)

Process procedure photoresist

Cleaning of substrates When new and clean substrates (wafers) are used, a heating at approximately 200 °C for several minutes (2-3 min, hot plate) is sufficient for drying. Substrates should however subsequently be processed quickly.